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Authors and affiliations
Indrajeet Kumar 1
Jayanta Bhattacharya 1, 2, 3

Article First Online: 05 January 2019, at Applied Nanoscience, Springer

  1. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India
  2. Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India
  3. Zelence Industries Private Limited, Kharagpur, India

Cite this article as: Kumar, I. & Bhattacharya, J. Appl Nanosci (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13204-018-00942-x


The paper reports a study conducted in two poultry farms of West Medinipur district, West Bengal, India with a target to reduce the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the poultry drinking water by the application of a formulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The lab-synthesized AgNPs had an average size of 15 nm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs for the farm water was considered 50 mg/L. Two poultry farms A and B were selected as case and control groups, respectively, for sampling. The study was designed with three replications. In the case group, the supplied water, generally used for the poultry in both the cases, was dosed with synthesized AgNPs throughout the study period, while in the control group the untreated water was supplied for drinking by the poultry. The study also included the impact of AgNP dose on factors of standard poultry growth performance like mortality count, feed intake (FI), body weight (BW) and food conversion ratio (FCR). The observations revealed that, compared to the control, in the case group the percentage mortality rate was reduced significantly (p < 0.05), and FI and BW increased significantly (p < 0.05), but no significant effect, however, was observed on FCR (p > 0.05). The results of average 4.92% mortality of case poultry, compared to the average 14.13% mortality in control, would potentially provide substantial economic benefit to the farmers. Moreover, the consumption risk assessment surmised that a 1.2 µg/g of silver retained on the poultry and hazard quotient (Ag) was 0.34 (< 1) which is considered non-toxic on the poultry, and the poultry is fit for human consumption. A cost–benefit analysis weighs in favour of AgNP use by the farmers to particularly deal with the effects of E. coli.


Farm water,  AgNPs, Growth performance, Risk assessment, Economic analysis 

Authors and affiliations
Subhash Chandra 1 Jayanta Bhattacharya 1, 2, 3

Article First Online: 12 January 2019, at Journal of Cleaner Production, Elsevier

  1. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, 721302, India
  2. Department of Mining Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, 721302, India
  3. Zelence Industries Private Limited, India

Cite this article as: S Chandra, J Bhattacharya, Journal of Cleaner Production, (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.079


The study reports an investigation into the effects of temperature and duration of the pyrolysis on the yield and properties of the rice straw biochar and their optimization for application in soil based on the results of seed germination test. As a continuation, the effects of rice straw biochar on the growth of mung beans germinated using extracts of biochar, which were maintained at different pHs was studied. Biochar solvent extraction was done by mixing a predetermined dose of rice straw biochar to solutions initially maintained at five different pH conditions (4, 6, 7, 8, and 10). The biochar extracts were also characterized for their pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient values and correlated with the germinated seed lengths. Further, this study based on the results of seed germination optimized the rice straw biochar production conditions with such properties to promote maximum seedling growth. Results showed that the yield of biochar decreased from 45.04% to 33.45% as temperature raised from 400 °C to 700 °C. The properties of biochar are primarily affected by the temperature as compared to the heating duration of the pyrolysis. The crystallinity index in the rice straw biochar decreased by 15.25% with the increase in the temperature from 400 °C to 700 °C. Correlation test among seed lengths and biochar extracts properties showed that the seed growth was directly correlated with the increase in the nutrient values at all pH conditions. Based on the germination test, the optimized conditions for the maximum seedling growth observed as for high nutrients, carbon (35–40%) and moderate nitrogen (3–4%), ash (32–35%), yield (35–40%) and cation exchange capacity (40–45 cmol/kg), carbon-nitrogen ratio (22–25:1), low oxygen-carbon ratio (0.7–0.8), ideal pH (8–9), and low volatiles (44–48%). The optimized pyrolytic temperature and duration to produce rice straw biochar with above-listed properties modelled as 500–600 °C and 80–100 min respectively.


Biochar, Surface response curve, Germination test, Optimization

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